GEM Home


Expected Output

How to Prepare Data Analysis from a Gender Perspective

How to Decipher Data

How to Report Your Findings

Sample Report on Findings: Focus Group Discussions


Expected Output

Analysis of data that have been gathered from a gender perspective; a preparatory step to PHASE 3 PUTTING EVALUATION RESULTS TO WORK

How to Prepare for Data Analysis from a Gender Perspective

Before you analyse and interpret your data, it is important to review the evaluation plan, specifically the intended use, evaluation question/s, and indicators. These three components of the evaluation plan will serve as guides in analysing data and preparing your report. Assuming that the evaluation plan is well-grounded on gender concepts and has a fully-integrated gender perspective, the first is to review your plan.

You may peruse some basic gender and ICT documents available at:

How to Decipher Data

Look for patterns, trends and contradictions based on gender and ICT indicators and evaluation question/s. Especially for gender analysis, it is necessary to track down patterns and trends that indicate changes (or the absence of change) in women’s and men’s status and relations as a result of an initiative.

There is also a need to “weigh your data, to take into account how many interviewees (respondents) gave the same answer, whether the information is confirmed across different interest groups, and whether it is confirmed or denied by external sources.” [Lusthaus, et al.] Emphasis is given to information and data from female respondents.

“A Framework for Reviewing Data” by Patton [309] gives “four distinct processes involved in making sense out of evaluation findings:”

Description and Analysis: Describing and analysing findings involve organising data into a form that reveals basic patterns. The evaluator presents, in user-friendly fashion, the factual findings as revealed in actual data.

Interpretation: What do the results mean? What’s the significance of the findings? Why did the findings turn out this way? What are possible explanations of the results? Interpretations go beyond the data to add context, determine meaning, and tease out substantive significance based on deduction or inference.
Judgement: Values are added to analysis and interpretations. Determining merit or worth means resolving to what extent and in what ways the results are positive or negative. What is good or bad, desirable or undesirable, in the outcomes? Have standards of desirability been met?
Recommendations: The final step (if agreed to be undertaken) adds action to analysis, interpretation, and judgement. What should be done? What are the action implications of the findings? Only recommendations that follow from and are grounded in the data ought to be formulated.

How to Report Your Findings

After you have deciphered, analysed and interpreted your data, the next step is to prepare a report. The following guide questions serve as reminders:

  • What information is important to your intended users and intended use?

Prioritise the findings according to those which are most relevant to the goals of the evaluation and the interest of the intended users. It is important to report the gaps in the evaluation findings as well, especially if those gaps point to a need for further evaluation of the initiative.

  • Who will see the report?

Based on the intended use, determine whether or not the results of the evaluation will be kept within the organisation or presented to the public. Before deciding to make the results public, it is necessary and ethical to inform the respondents and seek their consent.

  • How to present the findings for the intended users

Decide on how best to share the results of the evaluation to the intended users. Perhaps the most convenient form is presenting a written report, but there are other ways that will surely be more interesting for the intended users. You can use popular forms of publication such as leaflets, comics, or pamphlets. Or you can make use of electronic and digital technology like posting the report on the web or producing a CD or a powerpoint presentation. B e creative – use other media and combine different forms of communication.

Take for example the case of MCT in the Philippines. Aside from a written report, it held a two-day workshop attended by stakeholders and intended users to present and gather feedback. Doing away with long narratives, the evaluation team prepared visual aids and used other creative presentations.

Mothers 4 Mothers in Malaysia held interviews and focus group discussions. Below is a summary. (Read the complete report at )